sexta-feira, 27 de agosto de 2010



Once the seat of Viking raiders and later a major north European power, Denmark has evolved into a modern, prosperous nation that is participating in the general political and economic integration of Europe. It joined NATO in 1949 and the EEC (now the EU) in 1973. However, the country has opted out of certain elements of the European Union's Maastricht Treaty, including the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), European defense cooperation, and issues concerning certain justice and home affairs.

Geography ::DENMARK

Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, on a peninsula north of Germany (Jutland); also includes two major islands (Sjaelland and Fyn)
Geographic coordinates:

56 00 N, 10 00 E
Map references:


total: 43,094 sq km
country comparison to the world: 133
land: 42,434 sq km
water: 660 sq km
note: includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of metropolitan Denmark (the Jutland Peninsula, and the major islands of Sjaelland and Fyn), but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland
Area - comparative:

slightly less than twice the size of Massachusetts
Land boundaries:

total: 68 km
border countries: Germany 68 km

7,314 km
Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Current Weather
temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers

low and flat to gently rolling plains
Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Lammefjord -7 m
highest point: Yding Skovhoej 173 m
Natural resources:

petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone, chalk, stone, gravel and sand
Land use:

arable land: 52.59%
permanent crops: 0.19%
other: 47.22% (2005)
Irrigated land:

4,490 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:

6.1 cu km (2003)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 0.67 cu km/yr (32%/26%/42%)
per capita: 123 cu m/yr (2002)
Natural hazards:

flooding is a threat in some areas of the country (e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes
Environment - current issues:

air pollution, principally from vehicle and power plant emissions; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the North Sea; drinking and surface water becoming polluted from animal wastes and pesticides
Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:

controls Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat) linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population lives in greater Copenhagen

People ::DENMARK

5,500,510 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
Age structure:

0-14 years: 18.1% (male 511,882/female 485,782)
15-64 years: 65.8% (male 1,817,800/female 1,798,964)
65 years and over: 16.1% (male 387,142/female 498,940) (2010 est.)
Median age:

total: 40.7 years
male: 39.8 years
female: 41.6 years (2010 est.)
Population growth rate:

0.28% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
Birth rate:

10.54 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
Death rate:

10.22 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
Net migration rate:

2.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32

urban population: 87% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.055 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate:

total: 4.34 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 203
male: 4.39 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 78.3 years
country comparison to the world: 45
male: 75.96 years
female: 80.78 years (2010 est.)
Total fertility rate:

1.74 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.2% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

4,800 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 100 (2003 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130

noun: Dane(s)
adjective: Danish
Ethnic groups:

Scandinavian, Inuit, Faroese, German, Turkish, Iranian, Somali

Evangelical Lutheran 95%, other Christian (includes Protestant and Roman Catholic) 3%, Muslim 2%

Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), German (small minority)
note: English is the predominant second language

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 17 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2006)
Education expenditures:

8.3% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 12

Government ::DENMARK
Country name:

conventional long form: Kingdom of Denmark
conventional short form: Denmark
local long form: Kongeriget Danmark
local short form: Danmark
Government type:

constitutional monarchy

name: Copenhagen
geographic coordinates: 55 40 N, 12 35 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
note: applies to continental Denmark only, not to its North Atlantic components
Administrative divisions:

metropolitan Denmark - 5 regions (regioner, singular - region); Hovedstaden, Midtjylland, Nordjylland, Sjaelland, Syddanmark
note: an extensive local government reform merged 271 municipalities into 98 and 13 counties into five regions, effective 1 January 2007

first organized as a unified state in 10th century; in 1849 became a constitutional monarchy
National holiday:

none designated; Constitution Day, 5 June (1849) is generally viewed as the National Day

5 June 1953; note - constitution allowed for a unicameral legislature and a female chief of state
Legal system:

civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:

chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the monarch (born on 26 May 1968)
head of government: Prime Minister Lars Loekke RASMUSSEN (since 5 April 2009)
cabinet: Council of State appointed by the monarch
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch
Legislative branch:

unicameral People's Assembly or Folketing (179 seats, including 2 from Greenland and 2 from the Faroe Islands; members elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms unless the Folketing is dissolved earlier)
elections: last held on 13 November 2007 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - Liberal Party 26.2%, Social Democrats 25.5%, Danish People's Party 13.9%, Socialist People's Party 13.0%, Conservative People's Party 10.4%, Social Liberal Party 5.1%, New Alliance 2.8%, Red-Green Unity List 2.2%, other 0.9%; seats by party - Liberal Party 46, Social Democrats 45, Danish People's Party 25, Socialist People's Party 23, Conservative People's Party 18, Social Liberal Party 9, New Alliance 5, Red-Green Alliance 4; note - does not include the two seats from Greenland and the two seats from the Faroe Islands
Judicial branch:

Supreme Court (judges are appointed for life by the monarch)
Political parties and leaders:

Christian Democrats [Bjarne Hartung KIRKEGAARD] (was Christian People's Party); Conservative Party [Lene ESPERSEN] (sometimes known as Conservative People's Party); Danish People's Party [Pia KJAERSGAARD]; Liberal Alliance [Anders SAMUELSEN] (formerly known as New Alliance); Liberal Party [Lars Loekke RASMUSSEN]; Red-Green Unity List (Alliance) [collective leadership] (bloc includes Left Socialist Party, Communist Party of Denmark, Socialist Workers' Party); Social Democratic Party [Helle THORNING-SCHMIDT]; Social Liberal Party [Margrethe VESTAGER]; Socialist People's Party [Villy SOEVNDAL]
Political pressure groups and leaders:

Confederation of Danish Employers or DA [President Joergen VORSHOLT]; Principal DA member organizations: Confederation of Danish Industries [President Hans Skov CHRISTENSEN]; Confederation of Danish Labor Unions [ President Harald BORSTING]; Danish Bankers Association [CEO Joergen HORWITZ]; DaneAge Association [President Bjarne HASTRUP]; Danish Society for Nature Conservation [President Ella Maria BISSCHOP-LARSEN]
other: humanitarian relief; development assistance; human rights NGOs
International organization participation:

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Friis Arne PETERSEN
chancery: 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4300
FAX: [1] (202) 328-1470
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Laurie S. FULTON
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen
mailing address: PSC 73, APO AE 09716
telephone: [45] 33 41 71 00
FAX: [45] 35 43 02 23
Flag description:

red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side; the banner is referred to as the Dannebrog (Danish flag) and is one of the oldest national flags in the world; traditions as to the origin of the flag design vary, but the best known is a legend that the banner fell from the sky during an early-13th century battle; caught up by the Danish king before it ever touched the earth, this heavenly talisman inspired the royal army to victory
note: the shifted design element was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden

Economy ::DENMARK
Economy - overview:

This thoroughly modern market economy features a high-tech agricultural sector, state-of-the-art industry with world-leading firms in pharmaceuticals, maritime shipping and renewable energy, and a high dependence on foreign trade. The Danish economy is also characterized by extensive government welfare measures, an equitable distribution of income, and comfortable living standards. Denmark is a net exporter of food and energy and enjoys a comfortable balance of payments surplus. After a long consumption-driven upswing, Denmark's economy began slowing in early 2007 with the end of a housing boom. The global financial crisis has exacerbated this cyclical slowdown through increased borrowing costs and lower export demand, consumer confidence, and investment. The global financial crises cut Danish GDP by 0.9% in 2008 and 4.3% in 2009. Historically low levels of unemployment have risen sharply with the recession. Denmark is likely to make a slow and modest recovery, though unemployment is likely to rise through 2010. An impending decline in the ratio of workers to retirees will be a major long-term issue. Denmark maintained a healthy budget surplus for many years up to 2008, but the budget balance swung into deficit during 2009. Nonetheless, Denmark's fiscal position remains among the strongest in the EU. Despite previously meeting the criteria to join the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), so far Denmark has decided not to join, although the Danish krone remains pegged to the euro.
GDP (purchasing power parity):

$197.8 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
$207.5 billion (2008 est.)
$209.4 billion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):

$309.3 billion (2009 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:

-4.7% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
-0.9% (2008 est.)
1.7% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):

$36,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
$37,800 (2008 est.)
$38,300 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 1.2%
industry: 23.8%
services: 74.9% (2009 est.)
Labor force:

2.84 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 2.5%
industry: 20.2%
services: 77.3% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate:

4.3% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
3.4% (2008 est.)
Population below poverty line:

12.1% (2007)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 28.7% (2007)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:

29 (2007)
country comparison to the world: 118
24.7 (1992)
Investment (gross fixed):

18.8% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107

revenues: $170.9 billion
expenditures: $179.2 billion (2009 est.)
Public debt:

41.6% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
33.4% of GDP (2008 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):

1.3% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
3.4% (2008 est.)
Central bank discount rate:

1.2% (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 122
3.75% (31 December 2008)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:

Stock of money:

$155.6 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 12
$143 billion (31 December 2008)
Stock of quasi money:

$95.82 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 27
$81.64 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of domestic credit:

$709.2 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 17
$695.8 billion (31 December 2008)
Market value of publicly traded shares:

$203.2 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 31
$131.5 billion (31 December 2008)
$277.7 billion (31 December 2007)
Agriculture - products:

barley, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets; pork, dairy products; fish

iron, steel, nonferrous metals, chemicals, food processing, machinery and transportation equipment, textiles and clothing, electronics, construction, furniture and other wood products, shipbuilding and refurbishment, windmills, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment
Industrial production growth rate:

-12% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
Electricity - production:

36.4 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
Electricity - consumption:

34.3 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
Electricity - exports:

11.36 billion kWh (2008)
Electricity - imports:

12.82 billion kWh (2008)
Oil - production:

262,100 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
Oil - consumption:

166,500 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Oil - exports:

267,600 bbl/day (2008)
country comparison to the world: 45
Oil - imports:

137,000 bbl/day (2008)
country comparison to the world: 57
Oil - proved reserves:

1.06 billion bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
Natural gas - production:

8.398 billion cu m (2009)
country comparison to the world: 43
Natural gas - consumption:

4.41 billion cu m (2009)
country comparison to the world: 61
Natural gas - exports:

3.98 billion cu m (2009)
country comparison to the world: 29
Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008)
country comparison to the world: 91
Natural gas - proved reserves:

61.3 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Current account balance:

$9.103 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
$7.55 billion (2008 est.)

$91.49 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
$114.7 billion (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities:

machinery and instruments, meat and meat products, dairy products, fish, pharmaceuticals, furniture, windmills
Exports - partners:

Germany 17.53%, Sweden 12.68%, UK 8.49%, US 6.05%, Norway 6.01%, Netherlands 4.84%, France 4.57% (2009)

$84.74 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
$115.4 billion (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities:

machinery and equipment, raw materials and semimanufactures for industry, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs, consumer goods
Imports - partners:

Germany 21.07%, Sweden 13.18%, Norway 7%, Netherlands 6.97%, China 6.22%, UK 5.53% (2009)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$76.65 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 23
$42.32 billion (31 December 2008)
Debt - external:

$607.4 billion (30 June 2009)
country comparison to the world: 16
$588.8 billion (31 December 2008)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$145.7 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
$138 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$185.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
$176.9 billion (31 December 2008)
Exchange rates:

Danish kroner (DKK) per US dollar - 5.4742 (2009), 5.0236 (2008), 5.4797 (2007), 5.9468 (2006), 5.9969 (2005)
note: the Danish krone is pegged to the euro

Communications ::DENMARK
Telephones - main lines in use:

2.062 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 56
Telephones - mobile cellular:

7.424 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 70
Telephone system:

general assessment: excellent telephone and telegraph services
domestic: buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay form trunk network, multiple cellular mobile communications systems
international: country code - 45; a series of fiber-optic submarine cables link Denmark with Canada, Faroe Islands, Germany, Iceland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, and UK; satellite earth stations - 18 (6 Intelsat, 10 Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East)); note - the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) share the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norway, station for worldwide Inmarsat access (2008)
Broadcast media:

strong public-sector television presence with state-owned Danmarks Radio (DR) operating 4 channels and publicly-owned TV2 operating roughly a half dozen channels; broadcasts of privately-owned stations are available via satellite and cable feed; DR operates 4 nationwide FM radio stations, 15 digital audio broadcasting stations, and about 15 web-based radio stations; approximately 250 commercial and community radio stations are operational (2007)
Internet country code:

Internet hosts:

3.991 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 19
Internet users:

4.579 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 44

Transportation ::DENMARK

92 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 65
Airports - with paved runways:

total: 28
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 3 (2010)
Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 64
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 61 (2010)

gas 2,858 km; oil 107 km (2009)

total: 2,667 km
country comparison to the world: 64
standard gauge: 2,667 km 1.435-m gauge (640 km electrified) (2008)

total: 73,197 km
country comparison to the world: 64
paved: 73,197 km (includes 1,111 km of expressways) (2008)

400 km (2008)
country comparison to the world: 88
Merchant marine:

total: 327
country comparison to the world: 29
by type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 63, carrier 2, chemical tanker 78, container 84, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 42, petroleum tanker 29, refrigerated cargo 7, roll on/roll off 8, specialized tanker 4
foreign-owned: 26 (Canada 1, Germany 1, Germany 9, Greece 4, Iceland 2, Norway 3, Sweden 6)
registered in other countries: 534 (Antigua and Barbuda 19, Bahamas 67, Belgium 4, Brazil 2, Cayman Islands 3, Cyprus 4, Egypt 1, Estonia 1, France 2, Germany 1, Gibraltar 7, Hong Kong 24, Isle of Man 29, Italy 3, Jamaica 2, Liberia 12, Lithuania 5, Luxembourg 1, Malta 30, Marshall Islands 10, Mexico 2, Netherlands 29, Netherlands Antilles 2, Norway 25, Panama 40, Portugal 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 16, Singapore 87, South Africa 1, Spain 2, Sweden 4, Togo 1, UAE 1, UK 62, US 31, Venezuela 1) (2008)
Ports and terminals:

Aalborg, Aarhus, Copenhagen, Ensted, Esbjerg, Fredericia, Kalundborg

Military ::DENMARK
Military branches:

Defense Command: Army Operational Command, Admiral Danish Fleet, Arctic Command, Tactical Air Command, Home Guard (2010)
Military service age and obligation:

18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscripts serve an initial training period that varies from 4 to 12 months according to specialization; reservists are assigned to mobilization units following completion of their conscript service; women eligible to volunteer for military service (2004)
Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 1,235,947
females age 16-49: 1,221,386 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 1,013,814
females age 16-49: 1,001,411 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 37,831
female: 35,930 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:

1.3% of GDP (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114

Transnational Issues ::DENMARK
Disputes - international:

Iceland, the UK, and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm; Faroese continue to study proposals for full independence; sovereignty dispute with Canada over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland

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