sexta-feira, 27 de agosto de 2010



The Italians supplanted the Ottoman Turks in the area around Tripoli in 1911 and did not relinquish their hold until 1943 when defeated in World War II. Libya then passed to UN administration and achieved independence in 1951. Following a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI began to espouse his own political system, the Third Universal Theory. The system is a combination of socialism and Islam derived in part from tribal practices and is supposed to be implemented by the Libyan people themselves in a unique form of "direct democracy." QADHAFI has always seen himself as a revolutionary and visionary leader. He used oil funds during the 1970s and 1980s to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversives and terrorists abroad to hasten the end of Marxism and capitalism. In addition, beginning in 1973, he engaged in military operations in northern Chad's Aozou Strip - to gain access to minerals and to use as a base of influence in Chadian politics - but was forced to retreat in 1987. UN sanctions in 1992 isolated QADHAFI politically following the downing of Pan AM Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. During the 1990s, QADHAFI began to rebuild his relationships with Europe. UN sanctions were suspended in April 1999 and finally lifted in September 2003 after Libya accepted responsibility for the Lockerbie bombing. In December 2003, Libya announced that it had agreed to reveal and end its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction and to renounce terrorism. QADHAFI has made significant strides in normalizing relations with Western nations since then. He has received various Western European leaders as well as many working-level and commercial delegations, and made his first trip to Western Europe in 15 years when he traveled to Brussels in April 2004. The US rescinded Libya's designation as a state sponsor of terrorism in June 2006. In January 2008, Libya assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008-09 term. In August 2008, the US and Libya signed a bilateral comprehensive claims settlement agreement to compensate claimants in both countries who allege injury or death at the hands of the other country, including the Lockerbie bombing, the LaBelle disco bombing, and the UTA 772 bombing. In October 2008, the US Government received $1.5 billion pursuant to the agreement to distribute to US national claimants, and as a result effectively normalized its bilateral relationship with Libya. The two countries then exchanged ambassadors for the first time since 1973 in January 2009. QADHAFI in February 2009 took over as chairman of the African Union for the 2009-10 term; in September 2009, a Libyan took over the year-long presidency of UN General Assembly.

Geography ::LIBYA

Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Tunisia
Geographic coordinates:

25 00 N, 17 00 E
Map references:


total: 1,759,540 sq km
country comparison to the world: 17
land: 1,759,540 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:

slightly larger than Alaska
Land boundaries:

total: 4,348 km
border countries: Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,115 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km

1,770 km
Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm
note: Gulf of Sidra closing line - 32 degrees, 30 minutes north
exclusive fishing zone: 62 nm

Current Weather
Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior

mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions
Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m
highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m
Natural resources:

petroleum, natural gas, gypsum
Land use:

arable land: 1.03%
permanent crops: 0.19%
other: 98.78% (2005)
Irrigated land:

4,700 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:

0.6 cu km (1997)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 4.27 cu km/yr (14%/3%/83%)
per capita: 730 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:

hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms
Environment - current issues:

desertification; limited natural fresh water resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, is being built to bring water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities
Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:

more than 90% of the country is desert or semidesert

People ::LIBYA

country comparison to the world: 104
note: includes 166,510 non-nationals (July 2010 est.)
Age structure:

0-14 years: 33% (male 1,065,606/female 1,020,102)
15-64 years: 62.6% (male 2,036,780/female 1,923,566)
65 years and over: 4.4% (male 136,224/female 142,079) (2010 est.)
Median age:

total: 24.2 years
male: 24.3 years
female: 24.2 years (2010 est.)
Population growth rate:

2.172% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
Birth rate:

25.13 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
Death rate:

3.41 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 215
Net migration rate:


urban population: 78% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 2.2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate:

total: 21.7 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 97
male: 23.72 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 77.29 years
country comparison to the world: 57
male: 75.01 years
female: 79.68 years (2010 est.)
Total fertility rate:

3.01 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.3% (2001 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

10,000 (2001 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
HIV/AIDS - deaths:


noun: Libyan(s)
adjective: Libyan
Ethnic groups:

Berber and Arab 97%, other 3% (includes Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians)

Sunni Muslim 97%, other 3%

Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the major cities

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 82.6%
male: 92.4%
female: 72% (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 17 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2003)
Education expenditures:

2.7% of GDP (1999)
country comparison to the world: 152

Government ::LIBYA
Country name:

conventional long form: Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
conventional short form: Libya
local long form: Al Jamahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishtirakiyah al Uthma
local short form: none
Government type:

Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, governed by the populace through local councils; in practice, an authoritarian state

name: Tripoli (Tarabulus)
geographic coordinates: 32 53 N, 13 10 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:

22 states (shabiyat, singular - shabiyat); Al Butnan, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jabal Al Gharbi, Al Jafarah, Al Jafrah, Al Kafrah, Al Maraj, Al Marqab, Al Murzuq, Al Wahat, An Nuqat al Khams, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghat, Misratah, Nalut, Sibha, Surt, Tarabulus, Wadi al Hayat, Wadi ash Shati

24 December 1951 (from UN trusteeship)
National holiday:

Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)

none; note - following the September 1969 military overthrow of the Libyan government, the Revolutionary Command Council replaced the existing constitution with the Constitutional Proclamation in December 1969; in March 1977, Libya adopted the Declaration of the Establishment of the People's Authority
Legal system:

based on Italian and French civil law systems and Islamic law; separate religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

18 years of age; universal and technically compulsory
Executive branch:

chief of state: Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI (since 1 September 1969); note - holds no official title, but is de facto chief of state
head of government: Secretary of the General People's Committee (Prime Minister) al-Baghdadi Ali al-MAHMUDI (since 5 March 2006)
cabinet: General People's Committee established by the General People's Congress
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
elections: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of people's committees; head of government elected by the General People's Congress; election last held in March 2010 (next elections expected in early 2011)
election results: NA
Legislative branch:

unicameral General People's Congress (760 seats; members elected indirectly through a hierarchy of people's committees)
Judicial branch:

Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:

Political pressure groups and leaders:

other: Arab nationalist movements; anti-QADHAFI Libyan exile Movement; Islamic elements
International organization participation:

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Ali Suleiman AUJALI
chancery: 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Suite 705, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 944-9601
FAX: [1] (202) 944-9060
Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Gene A. CRETZ
embassy: off Jaraba Street, behind the Libyan-Swiss clinic, Ben Ashour
mailing address: US Embassy, 8850 Tripoli Place, Washington, DC 20521-8850
telephone: [218] 91-220-3239
Flag description:

plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the state religion)

Economy ::LIBYA
Economy - overview:

The Libyan economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which contribute about 95% of export earnings, 25% of GDP, and 60% of public sector wages. The weakness in world hydrocarbon prices in 2009 reduced Libyan government tax income and constrained economic growth. Substantial revenues from the energy sector coupled with a small population give Libya one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa, but little of this income flows down to the lower orders of society. Libyan officials in the past five years have made progress on economic reforms as part of a broader campaign to reintegrate the country into the international fold. This effort picked up steam after UN sanctions were lifted in September 2003 and as Libya announced in December 2003 that it would abandon programs to build weapons of mass destruction. The process of lifting US unilateral sanctions began in the spring of 2004; all sanctions were removed by June 2006, helping Libya attract greater foreign direct investment, especially in the energy sector. Libyan oil and gas licensing rounds continue to draw high international interest; the National Oil Corporation (NOC) set a goal of nearly doubling oil production to 3 million bbl/day by 2012. In November 2009, the NOC announced that that target may slip to as late as 2017. Libya faces a long road ahead in liberalizing the socialist-oriented economy, but initial steps - including applying for WTO membership, reducing some subsidies, and announcing plans for privatization - are laying the groundwork for a transition to a more market-based economy. The non-oil manufacturing and construction sectors, which account for more than 20% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include the production of petrochemicals, iron, steel, and aluminum. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit agricultural output, and Libya imports about 75% of its food. Libya's primary agricultural water source remains the Great Manmade River Project, but significant resources are being invested in desalinization research to meet growing water demands.
GDP (purchasing power parity):

$85.04 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
$85.61 billion (2008 est.)
$83.38 billion (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):

$60.35 billion (2009 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:

-0.7% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
2.7% (2008 est.)
5% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):

$13,400 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
$13,800 (2008 est.)
$13,800 (2007 est.)
note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 2.9%
industry: 71.2%
services: 25.9% (2009 est.)
Labor force:

1.686 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 17%
industry: 23%
services: 59% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate:

30% (2004 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
Population below poverty line:

7.4% (2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Investment (gross fixed):

14.1% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140

revenues: $34.19 billion
expenditures: $34.73 billion (2009 est.)
Public debt:

3.9% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
3% of GDP (2008 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):

2.4% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
10.4% (2008 est.)
Central bank discount rate:

5% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 121
4% (31 December 2007)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:

8.41% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 138
6% (31 December 2007)
Stock of money:

$26.66 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 36
$18.04 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of quasi money:

$4.264 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 87
$3.192 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of domestic credit:

$NA (31 December 2008)
$NA (31 December 2007)
Market value of publicly traded shares:

Agriculture - products:

wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle

petroleum, petrochemicals, aluminum, iron and steel, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement
Industrial production growth rate:

-4.4% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
Electricity - production:

23.98 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
Electricity - consumption:

22.17 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
Electricity - exports:

104 million kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports:

77 million kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production:

1.79 million bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
Oil - consumption:

280,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
Oil - exports:

1.542 million bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
Oil - imports:

575 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195
Oil - proved reserves:

43.66 billion bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Natural gas - production:

15.9 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
Natural gas - consumption:

5.5 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
Natural gas - exports:

10.4 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
Natural gas - proved reserves:

1.54 trillion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
Current account balance:

$8.257 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
$35.7 billion (2008 est.)

$34.24 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
$61.95 billion (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities:

crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas, chemicals
Exports - partners:

Italy 37.65%, Germany 10.11%, France 8.44%, Spain 7.94%, Switzerland 5.93%, US 5.27% (2009)

$22.11 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
$21.66 billion (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities:

machinery, semi-finished goods, food, transport equipment, consumer products
Imports - partners:

Italy 18.9%, China 10.54%, Turkey 9.92%, Germany 9.78%, France 5.63%, Tunisia 5.25%, South Korea 4.02% (2009)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$99.22 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
$92.51 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external:

$6.491 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
$6.223 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$17.41 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
$12.89 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$18.58 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
$12.75 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Exchange rates:

Libyan dinars (LYD) per US dollar - 1.2641 (2009), 1.2112 (2008), 1.2604 (2007), 1.3108 (2006), 1.3084 (2005)

Communications ::LIBYA
Telephones - main lines in use:

1.033 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 79
Telephones - mobile cellular:

4.828 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 90
Telephone system:

general assessment: telecommunications system is state-owned and service is poor, but investment is being made to upgrade; state retains monopoly in fixed-line services; mobile-cellular telephone system became operational in 1996
domestic: multiple providers for a mobile telephone system that is growing rapidly; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is approaching 100 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 218; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cable to France and Italy; microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in Medarabtel (2008)
Broadcast media:

state controls broadcast media; state-owned terrestrial TV station and about a half-dozen state-owned satellite stations broadcast; some provinces operate local TV stations; a single, non-state-owned TV station launched in 2007; pan-Arab satellite TV stations are available; state-owned radio broadcasts on a number of frequencies, some of which carry regional programming; Voice of Africa, Libya's external radio service, can also be heard; a single, non-state-owned radio station broadcasting (2007)
Internet country code:

Internet hosts:

11,751 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 115
Internet users:

323,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 123

Transportation ::LIBYA

137 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 42
Airports - with paved runways:

total: 59
over 3,047 m: 24
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 23
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 1 (2010)
Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 78
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 42
under 914 m: 17 (2010)

2 (2010)

condensate 776 km; gas 2,860 km; oil 6,987 km (2009)

total: 100,024 km
country comparison to the world: 43
paved: 57,214 km
unpaved: 42,810 km (2003)
Merchant marine:

total: 17
country comparison to the world: 101
by type: cargo 9, liquefied gas 3, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 4 (Kuwait 1, Norway 1, Syria 2)
registered in other countries: 3 (Malta 3) (2008)
Ports and terminals:

As Sidrah, Az Zuwaytinah, Marsa al Burayqah, Ra's Lanuf, Tripoli, Zawiyah

Military ::LIBYA
Military branches:

Armed Peoples on Duty (APOD, Army), Libyan Arab Navy, Libyan Arab Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Jamahiriya al-Arabia al-Libyya, LAAF), Libyan Coast Guard (2008)
Military service age and obligation:

17 years of age (2004)
Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 1,746,512
females age 16-49: 1,683,390 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 1,490,011
females age 16-49: 1,436,613 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 59,842
female: 57,357 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:

3.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26

Transnational Issues ::LIBYA
Disputes - international:

Libya has claimed more than 32,000 sq km in southeastern Algeria and about 25,000 sq km in the Tommo region of Niger in a currently dormant dispute; various Chadian rebels from the Aozou region reside in southern Libya
Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 8,000 (Palestinian Territories) (2007)
Trafficking in persons:

current situation: Libya is a transit and destination country for men and women from sub-Saharan Africa and Asia trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Libya is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to address trafficking in persons in 2007 when compared to 2006, particularly in the area of investigating and prosecuting trafficking offenses; Libya did not publicly release any data on investigations or punishment of any trafficking offenses (2008)

Nenhum comentário:

Postar um comentário